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Archaeology Science Study and Cultural Anthropology Study

Archaeology or archeology, is the study of human activity in the past, primarily through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes.

the scientific study of historic or prehistoric peoples and their cultures by analysis of their artifacts, inscriptions, monuments, and other such remains, especially those that have been excavated.

Archeology is the scientific study of past human culture and behavior, from the origins of humans to the present. Archaeology studies past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. These remains include the fossils (preserved bones) of humans, food remains, the ruins of buildings, and human artifacts—items such as tools, pottery, and jewelry. From their studies, archaeologists attempt to reconstruct past ways of life. Archaeology is an important field of anthropology, which is the broad study of human culture and biology. Archaeologists concentrate their studies on past societies and changes in those societies over extremely long periods of time.

Archaeology became established as a formal discipline in the 19th and early 20th centuries. At that time, most archaeological work was confined to Europe, to the so-called cradle of civilization in southwestern Asia, and to a few areas of the Americas. Today, archaeologists study the great cultural diversity of humanity in every corner of the world.

Archaeological study covers an extremely long span of time and a great variety of subjects. The earliest subjects of archaeological study date from the origins of humanity. These include fossil remains believed to be of human ancestors who lived 3.5 million to 4.5 million years ago. The earliest archaeological sites include those at Hadar, Ethiopia; Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli, Tanzania; East Turkana, Kenya; and elsewhere in East Africa. These sites contain evidence of the first appearance of bipedal (upright walking), apelike early humans. Laetoli even reveals footprints of humans from 3.6 million years ago. Some sites also contain evidence of the earliest use of simple tools. Archaeologists have also recorded how primitive forms of humans spread out of Africa into Asia about 1.8 million years ago, then into Europe about 900,000 years ago.

Through the study of human evolution, archaeology fosters an appreciation of our common ancestry. The discovery of thousands of unique cultures in the archaeological record also highlights the amazing scope of human diversity. Recent genetic research, in tandem with an accumulation of archaeological research, indicates that all people descended from a single human stock that originated in tropical Africa between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago. Archaeology also documents the origins and development of diverse cultural patterns, the continuity of traditions, and the exchange of ideas and beliefs across cultures.

Archaeology was once a predominantly academic science that was conducted in universities and colleges; today, archaeology is increasingly becoming a profession. Until recently, becoming an archaeologist meant obtaining a doctoral degree and a university professorship or a position as a museum curator. Many archaeologists now earn master’s degrees and work for government agencies or for private environmental monitoring companies and organizations. In the future, archaeology will be more concerned with monitoring the archaeological record than with making sensational discoveries. The archaeologist’s main concern will be to preserve the world’s human cultural and biological heritage for future generations.

Archaeology and anthropology together encompass the study of humankind from the origins of the human species to the present day. Both disciplines have a long history: archaeology grew from 18th-century antiquarianism, while anthropology began even earlier in the first days of colonial encounter. Today both subjects involve a range of sophisticated approaches shared with the arts, social sciences and physical sciences.

Archaeology and Anthropology opens up a wide range of career opportunities, in part because the degree offers a unique perspective on how human societies operate and develop and on how people interact with each other. Opportunities in heritage management, museum curation, education, regional archaeological services, international development, the Civil Service, advertising, marketing, computing, energy supply, community relations, law, and media.

Examples of positions after the studies (possible jobs)

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